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MBA (Dual Specialization) Program Structure
Vijayawada MBA Fee structure: INR.5,50,000/- for 2 years.
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Financial Management refers to the efficient and effective management of money (funds) in such a manner as to accomplish the objectives of the organization. It is the specialized function directly associated with the top management. The significance of this function is not seen in the ‘Line’ but also in the capacity of ‘Staff’ in overall of a company. It has been defined differently by different experts in the field.
The term typically applies to an organization or company’s financial strategy, while personal finance or financial life management refers to an individual’s management strategy. It includes how to raise the capital and how to allocate capital, i.e. capital budgeting. Not only for long term budgeting, but also how to allocate the short term resources like current liabilities. It also deals with the dividend policies of the share holders.
- Investment decisions includes investment in fixed assets (called as capital budgeting). Investment in current assets are also a part of investment decisions called as working capital decisions.
- Financial decisions – They relate to the raising of finance from various resources which will depend upon decision on type of source, period of financing, cost of financing and the returns thereby.
- Dividend decision – The finance manager has to take decision with regards to the net profit distribution. Net profits are generally divided into two:
- Dividend for shareholders- Dividend and the rate of it has to be decided.
- Retained profits- Amount of retained profits has to be finalized which will depend upon expansion and diversification plans of the enterprise.
Objectives of Financial Management
The financial management is generally concerned with procurement, allocation and control of financial resources of a concern.
The objectives can be-
- To ensure regular and adequate supply of funds to the concern.
- To ensure adequate returns to the shareholders which will depend upon the earning capacity, market price of the share, expectations of the shareholders.
- To ensure optimum funds utilization. Once the funds are procured, they should be utilized in maximum possible way at least cost.
- To ensure safety on investment, i.e, funds should be invested in safe ventures so that adequate rate of return can be achieved.
- To plan a sound capital structure-There should be sound and fair composition of capital so that a balance is maintained between debt and equity capital.
Functions of Financial Management
- Estimation of capital requirements: A finance manager has to make estimation with regards to capital requirements of the company. This will depend upon expected costs and profits and future programmes and policies of a concern. Estimations have to be made in an adequate manner which increases earning capacity of enterprise.
- Determination of capital composition: Once the estimation have been made, the capital structure have to be decided. This involves short- term and long- term debt equity analysis. This will depend upon the proportion of equity capital a company is possessing and additional funds which have to be raised from outside parties.
- Choice of sources of funds: For additional funds to be procured, a company has many choices like-
- Issue of shares and debentures
- Loans to be taken from banks and financial institutions
- Public deposits to be drawn like in form of bonds.
Choice of factor will depend on relative merits and demerits of each source and period of financing.
- Investment of funds: The finance manager has to decide to allocate funds into profitable ventures so that there is safety on investment and regular returns is possible.
- Disposal of surplus: The net profits decision have to be made by the finance manager. This can be done in two ways:
- Dividend declaration – It includes identifying the rate of dividends and other benefits like bonus.
- Retained profits – The volume has to be decided which will depend upon expansional, innovational, diversification plans of the company.
- Management of cash: Finance manager has to make decisions with regards to cash management. Cash is required for many purposes like payment of wages and salaries, payment of electricity and water bills, payment to creditors, meeting current liabilities, maintainance of enough stock, purchase of raw materials, etc.
- Financial controls: The finance manager has not only to plan, procure and utilize the funds but he also has to exercise control over finances. This can be done through many techniques like ratio analysis, financial forecasting, cost and profit control, etc.
Marketing management is the organizational discipline which focuses on the practical application of marketing orientation, techniques and methods inside enterprises and organizations and on the management of a firm’s marketing resources and activities.
Globalization has led some firms to market beyond the borders of their home countries, making international marketing a part of those firms’ marketing strategy. Marketing managers are often responsible for influencing the level, timing, and composition of customer demand. In part, this is because the role of a marketing manager can vary significantly based on a business’s size, corporate culture, and industry context. For example, in a large consumer products company, the marketing manager may act as the overall general manager of his or her assigned product. To create an effective, cost-efficient marketing management strategy, firms must possess a detailed, objective understanding of their own business and the market in which they operate. In analyzing these issues, the discipline of marketing management often overlaps with the related discipline of strategic planning.
Meaning: Marketing management facilitates the activities and functions which are involved in the distribution of goods and services.
According to Philip Kotler, “Marketing management is the analysis, planning, implementation and control of programmes designed to bring about desired exchanges with target markets for the purpose of achieving organisational objectives.
It relies heavily on designing the organisations offering in terms of the target markets needs and desires and using effective pricing, communication and distribution to inform, motivate and service the market.” Marketing management is concerned with the chalking out of a definite programme, after careful analysis and forecasting of the market situations and the ultimate execution of these plans to achieve the objectives of the organisation.
Further, their sales plans to a greater extent rest upon the requirements and motives of the consumers in the market. To achieve this objective, the organisation has to pay heed to the right pricing, effective advertising and sales promotion, distribution and stimulating the consumers through the best services.
To sum up, marketing management may be defined as the process of management of marketing programmes for accomplishing organisational goals and objectives. It involves planning, implementation and control of marketing programmes or campaigns.
Importance of Marketing Management: Marketing management has gained importance to meet increasing competition and the need for improved methods of distribution to reduce cost and to increase profits. Marketing management today is the most important function in a commercial and business enterprise.
The following are the other factors showing importance of the marketing management:
- Introduction of new products in the market.
- Increasing the production of existing products.
- Reducing cost of sales and distribution.
- Export market.
- Development in the means of communication and modes of transportation within and outside the country.
- Rise in per capita income and demand for more goods by the consumers.
Human Resource Management (HR) is the management of human resources. It is a function in organizations designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer’s strategic objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and on systems. HR departments and units in organizations typically undertake a number of activities, including employee benefits design employee recruitment, “training and development”, performance appraisal, and rewarding (e.g., managing pay and benefit systems). HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and from governmental laws.
According to R. Buettner, HRM covers the following core areas:
- job design and analysis,
- workforce planning,
- recruitment and selection,
- training and development,
- performance management,
- compensation (remuneration), and
- legal issues.
HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. The function was initially dominated by transactional work, such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advances, and further research, HR as of 2015 focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion.
Human Resources is a business field focused on maximizing employee productivity. Human Resources professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes. They can be specialists focusing in on recruiting, training, employee relations or benefits. Recruiting specialists are in charge of finding and hiring top talent. Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training programs, performance evaluations and reward programs. Employee relations deals with concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as harassment or discrimination. Someone in benefits develops compensation structures, family leave programs, discounts and other benefits that employees can get. On the other side of the field are Human Resources Generalists or Business Partners. These human resources professionals could work in all areas or be labor relations representatives working with unionized employees.
In startup companies, trained professionals may perform HR duties. In larger companies, an entire functional group is typically dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HR tasks and functional leadership engaging in strategic decision-making across the business. To train practitioners for the profession, institutions of higher education, professional associations, and companies themselves have established programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function. Academic and practitioner organizations likewise seek to engage and further the field of HR, as evidenced by several field-specific publications. HR is also a field of research study that is popular within the fields of management and industrial/organizational psychology, with research articles appearing in a number of academic journals, including those mentioned later in this article.
Businesses are moving globally and forming more diverse teams. It is the role of human resources to make sure that these teams can function and people are able to communicate cross culturally and across borders. Due to changes in business, current topics in human resources are diversity and inclusion as well as using technology to advance employee engagement. In the current global work environment, most companies focus on lowering employee turnover and on retaining the talent and knowledge held by their workforce. New hiring not only entails a high cost but also increases the risk of a newcomer not being able to replace the person who worked in a position before. HR departments strive to offer benefits that will appeal to workers, thus reducing the risk of losing corporate knowledge.
HRM vs Strategic HRM
HRM is Human Resources Management which is a strategic approach to the management of employees. HRM involves the process of employing people, developing their skills/capacities, and utilizing their services. But today, HRM has come across many changes, and the latest one is the Strategic HRM which is the most powerful idea currently. Strategic HRM can be termed as a branch of HRM.
In HRM, traditional methods are followed. Traditional methods means the selection or recruitment process and imparting training. This HRM process did not have any specific rules for different areas like recruitment, training, and utilizing the services. This is what makes the Strategic HRM different from HRM. In Strategic HRM, there are specific rules specified for specialized fields.
In HRM, there are no separate people for different areas whereas in Strategic HRM there are different people who are skilled in specific areas. It is not that the same persons will handle recruitment, training, and employee appraisal.
As the term itself denotes, Strategic HRM deals with strategic aspects of HRM. Unlike HRM, Strategic HRM mainly focuses on the programs with long-term objectives. Though HRM and Strategic HRM focus on increasing employee productivity, Strategic HRM uses many strategic methods.
Unlike the traditional HRM, Strategic HRM uses more sophisticated methods for improving overall employee motivation and productivity. Unlike the traditional HRM, Strategic HRM uses more systematic tools.
While the traditional HRM focuses mainly on employee relations, Startegic HRM focuses on partnerships with internal and external customers. When HRM has only short-term goals, Strategic HRM has long-term goals.
When considering job design, there is a tight division of labor and independence specialization in HRM. On the other hand, the job division in Strategic HRM is flexible. When HRM has staff specialists, Strategic HRM has line managers.
- HRM involves the process of employing people, developing their skills/capacities, and utilizing their services. Strategic HRM can be termed as a branch of HRM.
- While traditional HRM focuses mainly on employee relations, Startegic HRM focuses on partnerships with internal and external customers.
- When HRM has only short-term goals, Strategic HRM is for long-term goals.
- When HRM has staff specialists, Strategic HTM has line managers.
- When considering job design, there is a tight division of labor and independence specialization in HRM. On the other hand, job division in Strategic HRM is flexible.
IT management is the discipline whereby all of the information technology resources of a firm are managed in accordance with its needs and priorities. These resources may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data centre facilities, as well as the staff who are hired to maintain them. Managing this responsibility within a company entails many of the basic management functions, like budgeting, staffing, change management, and organizing and controlling, along with other aspects that are unique to technology, like software design, network planning, tech support etc
The central aim of IT management is to generate value through the use of technology. To achieve this, business strategies and technology must be aligned.
IT Management is different from management information systems. The latter refers to management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making. IT Management refers to IT related management activities in organizations. MIS is focused mainly on the business aspect, with strong input into the technology phase of the business/organization.
A primary focus of IT management is the value creation made possible by technology. This requires the alignment of technology and business strategies. While the value creation for an organization involves a network of relationships between internal and external environments, technology plays an important role in improving the overall value chain of an organization. However, this increase requires business and technology management to work as a creative, synergistic, and collaborative team instead of a purely mechanistic span of control.
Historically, one set of resources was dedicated to one particular computing technology, business application or line of business, and managed in a silo-like fashion.These resources supported a single set of requirements and processes, and couldn’t easily be optimized or reconfigured to support actual demand. This led technology providers to build out and complement their product-centric infrastructure and management offerings with Converged Infrastructure environments that converge servers, storage, networking, security, management and facilities.The efficiencies of having this type of integrated and automated management environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with simpler manageability and maintenance, and enables IT to adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage and networking) quicker to meet unpredictable business demand.
In addition to majors, FBS provides “pathways” to students who are interested in building expertise in emerging areas and evolving industries